The North Grenville Times http://www.ngtimes.ca The Voice of North Grenville Wed, 17 Jan 2018 20:00:28 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.2 A naturalist’s view of the ice storm http://www.ngtimes.ca/naturalists-view-ice-storm/ http://www.ngtimes.ca/naturalists-view-ice-storm/#respond Wed, 17 Jan 2018 20:00:28 +0000 http://www.ngtimes.ca/?p=10554 Fred Schueler and Aleta Karstad remember the ice storm twenty years ago all too well. They were living in their current home in Bishops Mills and survived the fourteen days without power thanks to their wood-burning stove, outside freezer and a bathtub full of water (which they had filled before the power went out). They […]

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Fred Schueler and Aleta Karstad remember the ice storm twenty years ago all too well. They were living in their current home in Bishops Mills and survived the fourteen days without power thanks to their wood-burning stove, outside freezer and a bathtub full of water (which they had filled before the power went out). They watched and participated as the community came together to support each other in the extreme weather event in Eastern Ontario that rocked the beginning of 1998.

As naturalists and observers, Fred and Aleta used the ice storm as an opportunity to gather information about how the ice storm affected the flora, fauna and habitats of the area. “I measured the excess diameter of the twigs caused by the ice,” Fred remembers. “There was 50 mm of excess diameter on everything.” Throughout the duration of the storm, Fred noted that the temperature remained roughly the same, between -2 and +0.5. When it ended the temperature plummeted into a deep freeze, further solidifying the ice that had built up on the trees, bushes and ground.

While in some cases the excess ice made a bush more structurally sound, when it came to some trees the ice weighed them down and caused them to snap. “In the wind the poplar trees would break in half,” Aleta remembers. “It sounded like artillery in the distance.”
Forests were ravaged during the ice storm with trees falling down and bent in all sorts of different directions. “It looked like photographs from World War 1,” Fred says.

Fred and fellow researchers David and Carolyn Seburn were employed by the Ministry of Natural Resources to look at how the extra layer of ice may have affected small mammal populations in Eastern Ontario. The trio sampled 90 different places within the area affected by the ice storm which were evenly divided between four habitats: old fields, fence rows, coniferous forests and deciduous forests. They found that the average thickness of the ice lens was 8-9 cm thick and this did not differ between the different habitats.

Fred and his colleagues found that it was hard to tell how most small mammals, including mice, shrews and moles were affected by the storm. However, they found that voles, who make tunnels under the snow to move around during the winter, were restricted in terms of where they could go because of the ice. They were also unable to dig their ventilation holes up to the surface to allow them to breathe under the snow. Because of this, their report speculated that the ice storm may have added to the already high rate of death for voles over the winter.

On her own accord Aleta says she observed some activity among mice populations near their home. From their under-snow tunnels they gravitated towards where they could smell fresh air around the trees. “I could hear them squeaking at the base of the trees under the snow,” she says. “I definitely witnessed social distress among the mice.”

Larger animals like deer and rabbits seemed to do quite well during the storm, taking shelter in their usual winter habitats. The rabbits ate fallen buds and deer were able to keep munching on the conifer trees that make up the forests where they winter. Wild turkeys were actually drawn closer to the human population as they relied on people’s bird feeders for nourishment. “The ice storm triggered the turkeys to be less afraid of people,” Fred says.

Any animal population loss caused by the ice storm has most likely been repopulated and no deer or rabbit is likely to remember those frigid two weeks. However, if you look at some of the trees in this area, you can still see where they were warped and damaged by the thick ice that once coated their branches. A reminder of a time in the area’s history that many remember as one of the more significant weather events of their lifetime.

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New year, new style http://www.ngtimes.ca/new-year-new-style/ http://www.ngtimes.ca/new-year-new-style/#respond Wed, 17 Jan 2018 19:58:44 +0000 http://www.ngtimes.ca/?p=10574 The Accessory Sale is the first project for KYC’s Youth Engagement Committee (YEC). The YEC is a voluntary youth based group who meet and discuss ways the youth can get more involved in their community, and in the centre. It gives them a voice and a chance to be heard. The youth collect donations of […]

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The Accessory Sale is the first project for KYC’s Youth Engagement Committee (YEC). The YEC is a voluntary youth based group who meet and discuss ways the youth can get more involved in their community, and in the centre. It gives them a voice and a chance to be heard. The youth collect donations of gently used accessories and clothing which they then sell at the event. The money raised at this event goes directly towards a cause of the youth’s choice, this year it being more food for the afterschool snack shack program we offer.

Shop with us Friday, February 9 between 3-7 pm or Saturday, February 10 from 11 am to 3 pm at 5 Oxford Street, Kemptville. All items under $10.

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First Village Chef dinner supports Merrickville-Wolford Community Fund http://www.ngtimes.ca/first-village-chef-dinner-supports-merrickville-wolford-community-fund/ http://www.ngtimes.ca/first-village-chef-dinner-supports-merrickville-wolford-community-fund/#respond Wed, 17 Jan 2018 19:57:58 +0000 http://www.ngtimes.ca/?p=10586 The Mainstreet Restaurant will kick off the 2018 Village Chef season with a dinner hosted by Mayor David Nash and friends in support of the Merrickville-Wolford Community Fund. Established last year, the Merrickville-Wolford Community Fund is a fund dedicated to the betterment and sustainability of Merrickville-Wolford by supporting charities and causes that matter to the […]

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The Mainstreet Restaurant will kick off the 2018 Village Chef season with a dinner hosted by Mayor David Nash and friends in support of the Merrickville-Wolford Community Fund.

Established last year, the Merrickville-Wolford Community Fund is a fund dedicated to the betterment and sustainability of Merrickville-Wolford by supporting charities and causes that matter to the community. In 2017 Merrickville-Wolford joined the 90 per cent of communities in Canada that already benefit from having access to a community fund. While still in it’s infancy, the Merrickville-Wolford Community Fund will address community needs through strategic grants and serve as a hub of local knowledge. The fund has already proven useful in 2017 by supporting Rideau Bridge to Canada and the resettling of a Syrian refugee family in Merrickville as well as securing funding in support of Merrickvile-Wolford’s Canada 150 activities.

The Wild Wild West themed evening will be on January 17, 2018 starting at 6 pm. Tickets are $45. For more information about the Merrickville-Wolford Community fund email Ann Martin at mwcommfund@gmail.com.

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Circling Back http://www.ngtimes.ca/circling-back/ http://www.ngtimes.ca/circling-back/#respond Wed, 17 Jan 2018 19:57:31 +0000 http://www.ngtimes.ca/?p=10557 In December 2017, the municipal budget was passed for 2018. During the budget process, there were two items in particular that caught the attention of this writer. Frankly, there were a lot more items that caught my attention, but there’s only so much space available for one article. The first item is that there are […]

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In December 2017, the municipal budget was passed for 2018. During the budget process, there were two items in particular that caught the attention of this writer. Frankly, there were a lot more items that caught my attention, but there’s only so much space available for one article.

The first item is that there are new municipal jobs that were created in the 2018 budget. One new full-time engineering technician position was created for Public Works. One new Asset Management Coordinator position was created for the Finance Department in the second half of this past year, which was not part of the 2017 budget, but was funded by cost savings realized throughout the year. Therefore, though technically this position already existed, this is the first time that it will be accounted for as part of the municipal budget. There will be a new full-time Facilities Attendant position that has been “enhanced” from an existing part-time position to full-time. There will be a new full-time Bylaw Officer position that has been “enhanced” from an existing part-time position to full-time. Finally, there will be a new full-time Building Inspector position created, but it was stated that this position will be funded through the collection of inspection fees and will not be funded through the municipal budget.

To simplify things, let’s call each of the new Bylaw Officer and Facilities Attendant positions a half of a full-time job as they were both part-time previously. Add to this the new full-time Engineering Technician and that means that the equivalent of TWO full-time jobs were created in this budget. The total cost of all of these new positions as provided by the Treasurer is $125,000 including benefits. This represents approximately 1% of the municipal budget.

For this year’s budget process, Council decided that they would try a new process whereby community groups and residents who wanted to make budget requests or wanted to make some other sort of change to the budget would have to speak to a member of Council and then that member of Council would bring their request forward to be voted on. Members of Council claimed that they had collectively met with people or groups a total of approximately thirty times. Deputy Mayor Tobin believed that she received about thirty emails and Councillor Onasanya said that he received at least thirty emails regarding the budget. The other three members of Council were unable to come up with a figure as to how many emails they received. There was also mention of how consultation occurs with residents and community groups throughout the year, not only at budget time.

The total amount of money that was requested to be added or shifted for the 2018 budget by residents or community groups in North Grenville during the budget consultation process was $166,000. Some of the requests included one by the Ontario Parenting Connection (and an offer had been made by OPC to become a partner on the project) for $100,000 for a splash pad and other upgrades to Riverside Park, a request to increase the amount of money in the Community Improvement Program by $20,000 from the Old Town Kemptville Business Improvement Area (BIA) and another BIA request for $40,000 to complete the Waterfront Trail along the actual waterfront, instead of its current route which sends people for a sloped walk up Barnes Street and then to walk along Clothier Street. Each request was voted on separately by Council at a special Committee of the Whole meeting on November 14.

After all of this consultation, the amount of money that was either shifted or added to the budget from these consultations amounted to a grand total of $500. That works out to 0.3% of the amount that was requested. It’s difficult to believe that someone was genuinely interested in consulting with people with results like that.

At one of the initial budget meetings, a video was played on a unique concept of having residents make budget requests and then the community could vote on which request they like. A list of community requests would be compiled by municipal staff and then residents would be able to vote on them electronically to determine a winner. That winner would then be put into the budget. However, there’s a big stipulation in that Council would have to decide the amount of money that was available for these requests. This sounds like a very promising concept, assuming that there’s a reasonable amount of money available. Although it certainly wouldn’t be a tough task to beat $500.

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Shiny Things http://www.ngtimes.ca/shiny-things/ http://www.ngtimes.ca/shiny-things/#respond Wed, 17 Jan 2018 19:54:26 +0000 http://www.ngtimes.ca/?p=10560 In a recent interview given by the Mayor of North Grenville in the Kemptville Advance, he chatted about the coming year and the big things in store for 2018. These big things included; the imminent announcement of the purchase of the former Kemptville College, the ground-breaking for the new Comfort Inn & Suites Hotel and […]

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In a recent interview given by the Mayor of North Grenville in the Kemptville Advance, he chatted about the coming year and the big things in store for 2018. These big things included; the imminent announcement of the purchase of the former Kemptville College, the ground-breaking for the new Comfort Inn & Suites Hotel and something else that the mayor alluded to that was going to forcibly remove all of our collective socks.

These are all wonderful things full of great potential and I’m sure that you join me in welcoming them coming to fruition. It’s important though that we stay focused on our existing businesses and organizations to make sure that they get at least the same level of support and attention that these new “shiny things” will enjoy. It’s easy to get distracted by the things that are shiny and new, all the while forgetting about what brought us to where we are today.

Some of you are probably aware of the challenges that Peter Vichos and his honey business faced over the past year with the Municipality of North Grenville, which were reported in the North Grenville Times. Though the situation has improved partly through the efforts of two members of council, the discussions are ongoing between the two parties. Since the Vichos Honey story broke, the North Grenville Times has been approached about other local businesses facing their own unique challenges in their dealings with the municipality.
The December opening of the new Starbucks Coffee was big news in the community, but people were concerned about the negative impacts on our existing businesses like local favourites Geronimo Coffee and Brewed Awakenings. Through recent conversations with the owners of both places, they seem to be holding their own and have had no significant negative impact to their sales. One of the key factors highlighted for this resiliency was the loyalty of their customers and a strong desire on the part of North Grenville residents to “shop local”. However, the majority of the credit should go directly to the owners themselves who have obviously built strong businesses that North Grenville residents have embraced.

If there are conditions that are negatively impacting members of our business community, we need to be aware of them, to understand what they are and figure out if there’s anything that we can do to mitigate their impact. In today’s business climate, we simply can’t afford to take our existing businesses and their future prospects for granted. Other communities would be more than happy to have some of our great local businesses relocate there. We also can’t leave out our local community and government organizations who also contribute greatly to the community through local employment and their social contributions.

I’ll always remember one remarkable statistic from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, it explained that up to 80% of job growth in rural areas comes from the success and expansion of existing small to medium-sized businesses. So, what’s the message here? Shiny new things are great, but we simply can’t take what we have for granted. Remember who brought you to the dance or you may end up going home alone.

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Kemptville Storm wins silver http://www.ngtimes.ca/kemptville-storm-wins-silver/ http://www.ngtimes.ca/kemptville-storm-wins-silver/#respond Wed, 17 Jan 2018 19:51:29 +0000 http://www.ngtimes.ca/?p=10596 The Kemptville Storm novice girls competitive team won silver in the Belleville Bearcats Tournament on the first weekend in January.

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The Kemptville Storm novice girls competitive team won silver in the Belleville Bearcats Tournament on the first weekend in January.

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Budget process continues with public meetings http://www.ngtimes.ca/budget-process-continues-public-meetings/ http://www.ngtimes.ca/budget-process-continues-public-meetings/#respond Wed, 17 Jan 2018 19:50:59 +0000 http://www.ngtimes.ca/?p=10568 The municipal budget process continued last week with budget discussions at the council meeting on Monday and two public meetings held in Merrickville and Eastons Corners. As of right now the budget is a working document. At last Monday’s meeting, a draft was presented to council suggesting a 23.7 per cent decrease in the capital […]

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The municipal budget process continued last week with budget discussions at the council meeting on Monday and two public meetings held in Merrickville and Eastons Corners.

As of right now the budget is a working document. At last Monday’s meeting, a draft was presented to council suggesting a 23.7 per cent decrease in the capital budget and a 3.7 per cent increase in operational costs. The budget also includes an 18.9 per cent increase in the budget for water and wastewater. This is because of a number of necessary infrastructure projects including the Drummond Street, Lewis Street and Brock Street road and water/sewer reconstruction which is subject to a $1.2 million grant from the Ontario government. With these numbers, the total budget has increased from 2017 at a rate of 2.8 per cent from $5,500,024 to $5,659,052.

The budget is still a working document because council voted not to pass it as the official draft budget last Monday. They felt a 3.7 per cent increase in the operational budget was much too high. Council directed staff to look for cost savings in the operational budget to make the increase no higher than 1.75 per cent. As of the public meeting on Thursday, staff had already found a cost savings of $30,000, putting them half way to their goal of cutting $60,000 to reach the 1.75 per cent. A report will be presented to council outlining if and how these cuts will be affecting municipal operations and services.

Even without the proposed cut backs, the municipal tax rate is still expected to decrease by 1.3 per cent. As staff look for efficiencies in the budget, this number could drop even further. The education tax rate is also expected to decrease by five per cent, while the county tax rate has yet to be announced. All things considered, it looks like Merrickville-Wolford residents can expect a slight decrease in taxes this year. This is a welcome announcement as taxes in the municipality are the highest in the County and have been steadily increasing year after year. “We know we have a problem,” says CAO John Regan. “We need to reduce the burden on our residents.” Unfortunately for Merrickville residents, the water/wastewater rates will still be going up ten per cent as per a commitment made in 2016 to do so until the cost of running the system becomes completely user-pay in 2021. Two per cent of the tax rate will also be going into an infrastructure reserve fund to help pay for the replacement of critical capital infrastructure (roads, bridges, buildings, equipment and utilities).

John says 2018 is shaping up to be an exciting but busy year in the municipality. There are more upgrades to the municipal centre proposed as well as several important infrastructure projects. The capital budget also includes upgrades to the community centre (including its washrooms) and Centennial Hall in Eastons Corners, another dry hydrant, security fencing for the landfill, hose for the pumper/tanker, asphalt for the Read Street parking lot and electrical hook up and trenching for a gazebo in the Blockhouse Park spearheaded by the Lions Club.

Municipal staff will also be busy with putting some strategic planning initiatives into play including the establishment of an Economic Development office if they are successful in their application for a Rural Economic Development (RED) grant through OMAFRA. They also hope to update the municipal website, improve communications, put up some signage to make drivers aware of farm traffic in rural areas and create a visitor strategy for the Village. They will also be looking at making more of an investment in training staff, asset management and updating the municipality’s Official Plan, which is mandated by the province. Not to mention it is also an election year.

Budget deliberations are not over and even if you missed the two public meetings last week there is still time to have your input. The draft budget is on the municipal website in their document library under financial documents. Any questions or concerns can be directed to John Regan at cao@merrickville-wolford.ca or 613-269-4791 ext. 229.

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Learn at play, every day http://www.ngtimes.ca/learn-play-every-day/ http://www.ngtimes.ca/learn-play-every-day/#respond Wed, 17 Jan 2018 19:46:56 +0000 http://www.ngtimes.ca/?p=10584 Family Literacy Day comes once a year, on January 27, but there are lots of ways to get kids involved in learning every day. One of the best tools in a parent’s toolbox is play! Why not try one of these activities and see how much fun learning can be. Play With Your Food: Get […]

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Family Literacy Day comes once a year, on January 27, but there are lots of ways to get kids involved in learning every day. One of the best tools in a parent’s toolbox is play! Why not try one of these activities and see how much fun learning can be.

  1. Play With Your Food: Get toothpicks and small pieces of apple, cheese, grapes, or whatever snack you want (marshmallows, yum). Now build a house, tower or circle by attaching your snacks with toothpicks. Best part is you can eat it (not the toothpicks, of course)!
  2. Favourite Food Find: Create a grocery store scavenger hunt with your weekly shopping list. Maybe add a few special items you don’t get all the time for a special treat (and an extra challenge for scavengers).
  3. Draw Me A Home: Get large sheets of paper and draw the rooms of your dream home. Add in the rooms you always wanted (trampoline in your bedroom and pool in the basement!) Get some of your favourite toys and play with them in the house.
  4. Letter Model It: With modeling clay, make the letters of your name using all the colours of the rainbow.
  5. The Punch Line Is: Swap your favourite jokes with your friends. See if your parents know them! (What’s a ninja’s favorite drink? WATAAAAA!!!!)

Visit www.FamilyLiteracyDay.ca for more activity ideas, free downloadable resources and to check for local Family Literacy Day events. Family Literacy Day was created by ABC Life Literacy Canada in 1999 and is celebrated nationally on January 27 to raise awareness of the importance of reading and engaging in other literacy-related activities as a family.
www.abclifeliteracy.ca.

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A Community Association for Merrickville? http://www.ngtimes.ca/community-association-merrickville/ http://www.ngtimes.ca/community-association-merrickville/#respond Wed, 17 Jan 2018 19:43:47 +0000 http://www.ngtimes.ca/?p=10565 There has been some talk recently about the lack of a Community Association in Merrickville, a group that could be a focus for different projects outside of the mandate of Council, etc. In Merrickville there is the Chamber of Commerce, MAG, and the Historical Society, all of which serve niches (special interest groups) in the […]

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There has been some talk recently about the lack of a Community Association in Merrickville, a group that could be a focus for different projects outside of the mandate of Council, etc. In Merrickville there is the Chamber of Commerce, MAG, and the Historical Society, all of which serve niches (special interest groups) in the community. What is missing is a community association that represents a united voice of the community and who can engage with the local council and all other groups on behalf of its citizens.

I hear complaints about what council is doing, or not doing, and that there is at least one development project that could potentially affect Merrickville (and surrounding communities) in a variety of ways. “How come”, they ask, “there’s no person or group championing a significant upgrade to the Merrickville Community Centre? It is – to say the least – a complete dump, and inflexible in terms of customizing the space for a variety of users”.

However, the building is extremely valuable and appropriate, because it is a COMMUNITY asset and not a private interest. There is a plethora of grants available for this kind of project, projects whose gains benefit everyone and not just special interest groups. This would seem to be an excellent project for a Community Association to take on, rather than Council (Council can’t, and shouldn’t, try to do everything). It would be generally easy to get buy-in from many, and the community would end up with an asset supported by the broadest community members and community groups possible.

There is a belief that, in small communities, community projects must trump private projects (especially ones that masquerade as public projects) for a variety of reasons. Perhaps the will is not there to start up another new group, another drain on a community’s limited resources in terms of personnel, energy and time. It is an aspect of our society these days that causes a great deal of worry among older service clubs and community groups: younger people, perhaps young married couples, don’t seem interested in getting involved in their community.

Given that they very often have to spend long times commuting to and from work, and then need family and private time, it is no wonder that there is little left over at the end of a working day to give to community involvement. But what happens in the longer term to neighbourhoods that are reduced to being just bedroom communities? Who will run the Guides and Scouts? Who will take over the reins at Lions Clubs, Rotary, Kinsmen, etc.?
Is it time to rethink all of this and see if there is a different model of community we can develop that will replace the traditional clubs and organisations when they can no longer find enough new members to replace the old guard?

It is said that without a vision the people perish. Where is the new vision for community, and who will step forward to lead the way?

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Kemptville’s Cold War secret http://www.ngtimes.ca/kemptvilles-cold-war-secret/ http://www.ngtimes.ca/kemptvilles-cold-war-secret/#respond Wed, 17 Jan 2018 19:38:01 +0000 http://www.ngtimes.ca/?p=10562 At the height of the Cold War, the Canadian Government took steps to ensure the Continuity of Government in the event of a nuclear attack on Ottawa. Between 1959 and 1962 a self-sufficient, shock-resistant, reinforced, radiation-proof underground complex with an elaborate protected communications network was built in Carp, known forever after as the Diefenbunker, after […]

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At the height of the Cold War, the Canadian Government took steps to ensure the Continuity of Government in the event of a nuclear attack on Ottawa. Between 1959 and 1962 a self-sufficient, shock-resistant, reinforced, radiation-proof underground complex with an elaborate protected communications network was built in Carp, known forever after as the Diefenbunker, after the Prime Minister of the day, John Diefenbaker. It remains today as a tourist destination and a reminder of days of fear and threats.

What is not so well known is the fact that the Diefenbunker was not the only secret location in which government officials could shelter in case of a nuclear attack: Kemptville, too, had its own smaller version of the Diefenbunker. It was realised in 1960 that the Carp location could not cater to all of the officials that would be needed to ensure Continuity of Government, so a series of other buildings was planned. In the event, only two in Kemptville and Carleton Place were actually built.

These two installations were known as Federal Readiness Units and were under the direction of the Emergency Measures Organization (EMO), a co-ordinating body of the Government. A two-storey building was built on Highway 16 (now County Road 44) across the road from the entrance to the Ferguson Forest Station. Before the building was ready for occupation, a special underground bunker was added to the structure to protect those using the site in the event of a nuclear attack. The locations of these as Federal Readiness Units were chosen to be close to Ottawa, for ease of access, and had to be south and west of the capital to escape radioactive clouds that would be spread by the prevailing winds which blow from the west.

The Kemptville location was also chosen to be the back-up centre should the Diefenbunker itself be compromised, which meant that Kemptville would then become the government and communications centre for the Canadian Government. Cabinet Ministers and senior government officials would be divided between the Diefenbunker, the Kemptville site and the Carleton Place location, to ensure that government could continue even if two of the three sites were destroyed in an attack.

Originally designed to house forty people for between fifteen and twenty days, complete with food, supplies, water, electricity, etc., it was decided in 1961 that the Kemptville Unit be enlarged to accommodate 100 people, with reinforced walls and ceilings to make it even more secure from bombs. At the time of the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, only the three locations were completed, and plans for other sites never resulted in actual buildings, aside from a Relocation Centre in Smiths Falls.

The Kemptville Unit had an operations and information display centre, work areas, a kitchen, dining room, dormitories, and a sickbay. According to one source on this secret facility: “Storage rooms contained food, equipment and supplies to sustain eighty people for fourteen or fifteen days. The message and communications centre and essential records vault were centrally located. Access could be gained only by passing through a decontamination area with a disrobing area, showers, a supply of clean clothing, and a dressing area. It was located at the bottom of the stairway that led down from the front entrance on the ground floor. The facility drew electricity from the local commercial power supply, but standby power was available from an emergency generator. Life support systems included a heating system with fifteen days supply of fuel, air conditioning, and a ventilation system designed to filter outside air for radioactive particles. Relocation sites were constructed on solid bedrock for maximum stability. Occupants drew water from on-site wells.

Two tunnels led from the exterior to the decontamination area. Personnel could enter or escape the bunker through heavy steel interior doors, while it remained sealed off from the readiness unit. Sand was packed into the tunnels to prevent collapse and provide an air-tight seal against radiation, but could be removed to facilitate access or egress, and the tunnels refilled. Both sites still contain their original diesel generators. The one in Kemptville was still working during the ice storm in 1998.”

After the end of the Cold War, the Kemptville site was handed over to the RCMP as a training facility, and it was only in the last ten years or so that it was finally closed and demolished. But for a time, Kemptville was, whether residents knew it or not, at the centre of Canada’s response to the Cold War and an essential part of the Canadian Government’s plans for surviving and recovering from a nuclear war.

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